2014 General Elections

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The 2014 Indian general election was unique in 3 different ways:

  • It was the longest election in the country’s history (barring the 1st general election of 1951-52) as it was spread across nine phases between 7 April to 12 May.
  • For the first time, a non-Congress party won with a full majority (1977 was an exception with an amalgamation of various political parties as Lok Dal)
  • For the first time, India voted to elect a Prime Minister who was born after independence which signalled a break from old-school politics practiced for many decades after independence.
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The 2014 general election was also the first time in the democratic history of the world when 55+ Crore (550 Million) people exercised their franchise to elect a popular government. This number was 13.6 Crore (136 million) more than the previous record set in the Indian general election of 2009. The jump in voter participation between two general elections of 2009 and 2014 was also the highest in India’s history both in terms of raw numbers (almost 140 million additional votes) as well as the percentage (34 percent jump).

For the first time, general elections in India witnessed a complete shift of political order as the Congress party—which had been directly in power for 55 of 67 years of Indian democracy—fell below the 20th percentile while the BJP became the first non-Congress party to cross the 30th percentile regarding vote-share. The BJP also became the first party to win an outright majority by winning more than half of 543 MPs (Member of Parliament) in the lower house of Lok Sabha since 1984, when the late former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi-led his Congress party to a thumping majority.

BJP v/s Congress vote-share history

Background

The members of the Lok Sabha hold office for five years or until parliament is dissolved by the president. The 15th Lok Sabha elections were held in April–May 2009 in five phases. The United Progressive Alliance (UPA-II) led by the Indian National Congress (INC) had formed the government in 2009. The INC had won 206 seats out of 440 contested, and the UPA overall had won 322 seats[1].

The UPA-II Government, in its five-year term, only completed few of the promises it made in 2009 manifesto. One of the major negatives for the UPA-II was its inability to do anything about the dramatic downward spiral of the Indian economy[2]. The UPA-II government’s time in power was also marred by numerous scams and corruption charges[3], with a 2013 poll by The Hindu stating that 69 percent of survey respondents believes the UPA government to be corrupt[4]. Many ministers from the UPA-II had to resign after facing corruption charges[5].

The anti-corruption movements launched by Anna Hazare and the subsequent formation of the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) in 2012 by Arvind Kejriwal also made the corruption issues come to fore. With growth below five percent for four straight quarters, the Indian economy was also suffering its worst slowdown in over a decade. According to Girish Vanvari, partner and co-head of Tax at KPMG India, internal factors like persistent inflation and low investments due to policy inaction coupled with certain external factors like the roll back of stimulus, by the US Federal Reserve dampened the growth of the economy[6].

In February 2014, “Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014” was passed by the Parliament for the formation of Telangana state and the state officially came into existence on 2 June 2014. Another agenda in the final session of parliament was the passing of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 on 1 January 2014[7].

Campaigning

The Campaign for the 2014 General elections were the most expensive Lok Sabha elections in India, costing the national exchequer INR 3,426 crore. The cost of the 2009 elections was INR 1,483 crore, which means the jump incurred in expenses was quite substantial (131 percent).[8] The increase in cost was attributed to inflation as well as measures undertaken to increase voting figures like voter awareness campaigns, distribution of voter slip ahead of the election dates, use of Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) for the first time. The number of independent candidates had also increased, resulting in more expenditure.

The government had raised the cap of spending by a candidate from INR 40 lakh to INR 70 lakh in bigger states and from INR 22 lakh to INR 54 lakh in smaller states, which pushed up the total expenditure of polls.[9]

The campaigns of BJP and INC, the two main rivals, were focused on the welfare of the poor and the development of the industries, but it was also marred by political mud-slinging. While the BJP accused the INC of dynastic rule and corruption, the INC, in turn, questioned the capabilities of the BJP leaders and accused them of communalism.

Role of Technology

The 2014 general election campaign by the BJP saw an extensive use of technology like social media and digital platforms like 3D hologram projection. It helped the BJP’s to extend its nationwide reach, especially among the younger generation. The strategy proved to be a successful practice as the number of mobile phone owners, internet usage and social media users have been exponentially increasing year by year.

There were over 200 million internet users in India in 2014[10] and the number of mobile phone users was 581.1 million[11]. As per the data collated by ‘We Are Social’, there were 185 million active mobile internet users and 70 percent of internet traffic in India was through either phones or tablets[12]. Further, in 2014, the smartphone penetration as a percentage of the total population was 13 percent, out of which 95 percent users were searching local information via their smartphone.

The numbers of active social media users were 106 million in 2014. BJP capitalised on this heavily by enlisting online volunteers to make use of technology, especially social media. Special training sessions were conducted to teach the volunteers about the contents of their message and the use of technology.[13] INC too had constituted special teams to use a range of digital platforms with party leaders to build an online presence similar to that of Narendra Modi.

In a way, the 2014 General elections seemed to have paved a path for the means, by which technology will be used in future elections.

State of Economy

In December 2013, the Indian economy reportedly suffered the worst slowdown in over a decade with economic growth failing to reach 5 percent for four straight quarters, leading to threats of a downgraded rating. In the first three quarters of 2013, the gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 4.8 percent, 4.4 percent and 4.8 percent respectively, making an average growth of 4.6 percent[14]. India’s GDP growth during 2012-13 was 4.5 percent.

Agriculture and its allied sectors saw high growth in 2013 owning to favourable monsoons. There was a persistent slowdown in industrial growth due to a deceleration in the mining and quarrying. The manufacturing sector also experienced a slowdown in growth, averaging 0.2 percent per annum for 2013 and 2014.[15]

In 2013-14, the growth of private final consumption declined to 4.8 percent from 5 percent in 2012-13. The fixed investment rate (investment in physical assets such as machinery, land, buildings, installations, vehicles, or technology) declined steeply in 2013-14 due to a waning private corporate investment. The fall was due to high-interest rates and tight liquidity, resulting from monetary policy to control inflation and prevent depreciation of the rupee.

The share of exports in the GDP increased from 24 percent in 2012 -13 to 24.8 percent in 2013-14, whereas the share of imports declined from 30.7 percent to 28.4 percent, resulting in net exports improving by 3.1 percent of the GDP.

According to the Doing Business report 2014, prepared by the World Bank, India ranked 134 out of 189 countries in the ‘ease of doing business’ category.

Corruption

Corruption was always a key issue for voters in India. A majority of Indians were dissatisfied with the widespread corruption in the country. According to a survey by Gallup, three-fourths of Indian adults aged 18 to 34 stated that corruption was widespread in the government. The same sentiment was echoed by adults aged 35 to 54 (76 percent) and 55 or older (72 percent).

Further, nine out of ten North Indians believed corruption to be prevalent in the government compared to 65 percent South Indians. Although in 2012, 82 percent South Indians saw government as corrupt. Around 51 percent Indians said that the government was not doing enough to fight corruption.[16]

These feelings against corruption were further accentuated by the fact that the tenure of UPA-II was embroiled in various scams and scandals like the 2G scam, chopper scam, coal block scam and the CWG scam. The anti-corruption drive by Anna Hazare and the crusade against corruption by Arvind Kejriwal and his Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) also kept the corruption issue at the forefront.

A study carried out by The Hindu, to check whether corruption influenced voter choice, found that the lower strata of society and majority of women were unaware of the details of scams, probably because the corruption at local level institutions mattered more to them.[17]

Influx of Non-political candidates[18]

Many parties nominated celebrity candidates from various fields like sports, Film industry etc. in attempt to garner support from their fanbase.

BJP candidates:

  • Smriti Irani (Actress): She contested from Amethi, Uttar Pradesh, against Rahul Gandhi.[19]
  • Vinod Khanna (Actor): He won from and represented Gurdaspur constituency, Punjab till his demise on 27 April 2017 due to cancer[20].
  • Kirron Kher (Actress): She contested and won from Chandigarh constituency after defeating INC’s Pawan Kumar Bansal.[21]
  • Bappi Lahiri (Music composer): He contested from the Sreerampore constituency, West Bengal and lost against Kalyan Banerjee of the TMC.[22]
  • Hema Malini (Actress): She contested and won from Mathura constituency, Uttar Pradesh after defeating the INLD’s Jayant Chaudhary.
  • Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore (Sportsperson): He contested from Jaipur rural constituency, Rajasthan and won against the INC’s C P Joshi.
  • Paresh Rawal (Actor): He contested and won from East Ahmedabad constituency, Gujarat.
  • Vijay Kumar Singh (Retired Indian army General ): He contested and won from Ghaziabad constituency[23].
  • Shatrughan Singh (Actor): He contested and won from Patna Sahib constituency, Bihar.
  • P.C. Sorcar Jr. (Magician): He contested from Barasat constituency, West Bengal but lost to the TMC’s Kakoli Ghosh Dastidar.
  • Babul Supriyo (Singer): He contested and won from Asansol constituency, West Bengal after defeating the TMC’s Dola Sen.
  • Manoj Tiwari (Singer and Actor): He contested from Delhi North-East constituency and won after defeating the INC’s Jai Prakash Aggarwal and AAP’s Anand Kumar.

INC candidates:

  • Raj Babbar (Actor): He contested from Ghaziabad constituency but lost to Gen. V.K. Singh.[24]
  • Mohammad Kaif (Cricketer): He lost from Phulpur, Uttar Pradesh to the BJP’s Keshav Prasad Maurya[25].
  • Ravi Kishan (Actor): He contested and lost from Jaunpur constituency in Uttar Pradesh. In February 2017, he left the INC and joined the BJP[26].
  • Nandan Nilekani (Entrepreneur and bureaucrat): He contested from Bengaluru South constituency and lost to the BJP’s Ananth Kumar[27].
  • Nagma (Actress): She contested the elections from Meerut constituency, Uttar Pradesh but lost to the BJP’s Rajendra Aggarwal[28].

TMC candidates:

  • Bhaichung Bhutia (retired footballer): He lost the Darjeeling seat to the BJP’s Surinder Singh Ahluwalia by nearly two lakh votes[29].
  • Biswajit Chatterjee (Actor): He contested from New Delhi[30].
  • Indranil Sen (Singer): He contested from Baharampur, West Bengal but lost to the INC’s Adhir Ranjan Chwodhury by a margin of over 3.56 lakh[31].
  • Moon Moon Sen (Actress): She won from Bankura, West Bengal by a margin of 98506 votes.[32]
  • Dev (Deepak Adhikari) (Actor): He contested and won from Ghatal, West Bengal[33].

AAP:

  • Jaaved Jaaferi (Indian actor): He contested from Lucknow constituency and lost to the BJP’s Rajnath Singh.[34]
  • Bhagwant Mann (Comedian): He contested and won from the Sangrur constituency.[35]
  • Gul Panag (Actress): She contested from Chandigarh but lost out to the BJP’s Kirron Kher[36].

Janta Dal (United):

  • Prakash Jha (Film producer, actor, director and screenwriter): He contested and lost the election from the West Champaran constituency in Bihar[37].

Samajwadi Party (SP):

  • Kamaal Rashid Khan (Film actor, producer and writer): He quit the party in order to contest the election as an independent candidate from the North-West Mumbai constituency, but lost the election.[38]

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS):

  • Mahesh Manjrekar (Film director, actor, writer and producer) [39]: He contested from the North-West Mumbai constituency but lost to Gajanan Chandrakant Kirtikar of the Shiv Sena[40]

Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD):

  • Jaya Prada (Film actress and politician): She has been involved in politics since 1990’s and has been a member of several political parties—Telugu Desam Party, Sawajwadi Party and finally, Rashtriya Lok Manch. She joined the RLD in March 2014. She contested elections from Bijnor, Rajasthan but lost.

Rashtriya Aam Party (RAP):

  • Rakhi Sawant (Model and actress): She contested from the Mumbai North-West parliamentary constituency but could secure only 1995 votes.[41]

LDF-IND:

  • Innocent Vareed Thekkethala (Film actor and politician): He contested elections from the Chalakudy constituency as an independent candidate supported by the Left Democratic Front (LDF).[42]

The Social Media Effect

According to “India Digital Future in Focus”, there was a 31 percent increase in the number of internet users in India from March 2012 to March 2013. The number of first-time voters was 150 million in 2014, most of whom were youngsters active on social media. Facebook stated that Narendra Modi’s Facebook fanbase grew by 14.86 percent between 7 April 2014 and 12 May 2014, which was the duration of the elections. Arvind Kejriwal’s count increased by 8.16 percent during the same time. Facebook also stated that between the day elections were announced till May 16, the counting day, 29 million people made 227 million poll-related interactions (posts, comments, shares, and likes) with 13 million people on Facebook posting 75 million updates related to Narendra Modi[43].

The increased reach of the internet and social media also increased the ability of voters to obtain information about the elections. As reported by NDTV Gadgets 360, Dr. Ranjit Nair, the CEO of Germin8, a company that works on big data analysis, stated "If you see it broadly, the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) had a fantastic outreach to people but they failed in their messaging strategy. The BJP, on the other hand, did not have much of an outreach earlier on (it changed in the latter months) but their messages were the one that people wanted to hear, whilst the Congress woke up to the impact of social media messaging just too late."

Also, as reported by NDTV Gadgets 360, SocialBakers, a company that offers tools for monitoring and analysing social media, offered a detailed breakdown of the performance of the main political parties. According to SocialBakers, between 19 April and 18 May, social media trends showed a surge in the popularity of the BJP with Modi-related interactions hitting a record of over 15 lakhs, Kejriwal at just over a lakh and Digvijaya Singh of the Congress at just 19,500.

According to Milan Vaishnav, an associate in the South Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, “What we do know from exit polling data is that if you look at demographic support for the BJP in particular, the BJP dominated the Congress when it came to young voters.”[44] The support is evident as by the time Narendra Modi was sworn in, he had more than 16 million likes on Facebook making him the sixth most followed world leader on Twitter.

Arvind Gupta, who led the BJP’s social media campaign as the head of IT division, stated that the campaign affected 30 to 40 percent of the overall seats and that social media was amongst the top three communication tools in many constituencies, overtaking traditional methods such as advertisements.

Twitter was certainly the most effective tool used by the parties as the leaders directly reached out to the masses through their tweets. As most of the Twitter community is quite young, it meant that the parties were able to target a specific demographic.

Parties and Alliances

National Democratic Alliance (NDA)

Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP)

The BJP allied with 23 national and regional parties to contest the 2014 general elections. Please find below the list of all parties in NDA along with the party-wise performance. The NDA performed exceedingly well and won 343 seats which led it to form the government at the centre. The BJP governed the alliance by winning 282 out of the 427 seats contested by it.

The BJP chose Narendra Modi as its party campaign leader for the 2014 general elections. Though the move was not received with enthusiasm by some senior leaders like L K Advani, Yashwant Sinha and Jaswant Singh, it later became the biggest reason for the BJP-led NDA’s overwhelming victory in the elections. The twelve-member committee included Sushma Swaraj, Murli Manohar Joshi, Arun Jaitley and Nitin Gadkari. Amit Shah, a close aide of Narendra Modi, was appointed the party’s general secretary and was made in-charge of Uttar Pradesh.

Key Leader’s Constituencies

Narendra Modi was declared the PM candidate by BJP parliamentary board in September 2013. L K Advani, already being upset with the turn of events chose not to attend the meeting. Modi contested from Vadodara and Varanasi. He was the incumbent MP from Vadodara but Murli Manohar Joshi, the sitting MP from Varanasi, was moved to Kanpur constituency to pave the way for Modi. Arun Jaitley contested the Lok Sabha elections for the first time and fielded from Amritsar. Smriti Irani contested the elections from Amethi, giving tough competition to Congress Vice President Rahul Gandhi. Raj Nath Singh stood from Lucknow and L K Advani stood from Gandhinagar, again. Jaswant Singh when denied a ticket from Barmer chose to stand as an independent candidate and for this, he was expelled from the party.

Campaign and Issues

The BJP released its election manifesto in April 2014. With a slogan of “Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas”, the manifesto was focused at urban development, checking price rise, fighting corruption, creating employment opportunities, launching women-centric national campaign “Beti Bachao Beti Padhao” among other things. With “Abki Baar Modi Sarkar” as its main slogan, the BJP started a nationwide campaign to establish Narendra Modi as its PM candidate. Modi travelled all over the country, and according to Team Modi’s numbers, he had addressed 437 big rallies, participated in 5827 public interfacing events and travelled 3 lakh km across 25 states. His speeches created a huge impact on the public, and the Modi-wave took over almost the entire country. Modi campaigned aggressively and questioned the Congress on its hapless governance.

He spoke about the Gujarat Model of development and tried to project himself as a no-nonsense and pro-business leader. He was the first chief minister to contest as the PM candidate. In its first, a PM candidate focused on states with smaller representation in the Lok Sabha.[45]

He held 30 rallies in Bihar alone and successfully broke the language barrier by extensively campaigning in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Assam, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh.

Other parties in the alliance

Shiv Sena

After Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra has the highest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. There are 48 Lok Sabha seats from the state. The Shiv Sena joined the NDA and fielded candidates in 20 seats and won on 18. Its Lok Sabha leader is Amravati MP Anandrao Adsul. The Modi wave was felt in Maharashtra as well as Modi held 15 rallies in the state.

Lok Janshakti Party (LJP)

Ram Vilas Paswan-led LJP, a regional party in Bihar, joined the NDA after 12 years. It fielded candidates in seven seats and won six of them. Ram Vilas Paswan and his son Chirag Paswan were amongst the seven candidates.

Certain BJP leaders were unhappy with BJP’s alliance with the Dalit party and chose to skip Modi rallies in Bihar. However, after the alliance with the JD(U) broke, the BJP had no choice but to go in an alliance with the LJP.

Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD)

Punjab holds 13 seats in the Lok Sabha. SAD allied with the BJP and contested on 10 seats out of the 13. It sent four MPs to the 16th Lok Sabha.

Other notable alliances were Raju Shetti-led Swabhimani Paksha in Maharashtra, Mahadev Jankar-led Rashtriya Samaj Paksha in Maharashtra and Ramdas Athawale-led Republican Party of India in Maharashtra.

United Progressive Alliance (UPA)

The INC formed an alliance with 14 parties to contest the 16th Lok Sabha elections. Its performance was the worst in its history of 129 years. It contested in 464 seats and won only 44 seats compared to 206 in 2009 general elections. In March 2014, the RJD, INC and NCP allied to contest the elections in Bihar.

Indian National Congress

The INC appointed party general secretary Rahul Gandhi as the head of the six-member election co-ordination committee. The INC campaign was led by incumbent PM Manmohan Singh, INC Chairperson Sonia Gandhi and party general secretary Rahul Gandhi. Though they did not announce the party PM candidate, it was widely anticipated that in case of favourable results, Rahul Gandhi would be chosen. Apart from the election co-ordination committee, Congress also formed three sub-groups—a three-member pre-poll alliances sub-group headed by A.K Antony, a ten-member manifesto and government programmes’ sub group (also head by A K Antony) and a seven-member publicity and communication sub group headed by Digvijaya Singh. Reportedly, Rahul Gandhi played the pivotal role in picking candidates. Other leaders like P. Chidambaram, Jairam Ramesh and Ahmed Patel were part of the sub-groups.[46]

Rahul Gandhi - In January, in an interview in Frankly Speaking with Arnab Goswami of Times Now, Rahul Gandhi admitted to the involvement of Congress leaders in the 1984 Anti-Sikh riots and also stated that Modi-led Gujarat state government was responsible for the 2002 Godhra riots in Gujarat. He claimed that instead of stopping, the Gujarat government abetted on attacking the minorities. He was claimed to be the responsible for selecting candidates for the elections and chose to induce many young faces in order to connect with the youth of the country.

Other parties in the alliance

National Conference JKNC

Jammu and Kashmir holds six Lok Sabha seats. Farooq Abdullah-led JKNC contested on three seats out of six. While campaigning, speaking against Bihar BJP leader Giriraj Singh’s remark of “Support Modi or go to Pakistan”, Farooq Abdullah said that Modi’s agenda could spark another partition. He said, “BJP’s prime ministerial candidate Narendra Modi speaks about development but refuses to talk about the multiculturalism and communal harmony that has bound this country together for centuries.”

Nationalist Congress Party NCP

Sharad Pawar-led NCP joined the UPA and fielded 36 candidates in the Lok Sabha elections. The NCP and Congress started a joint election campaign from Maharashtra, concentrating on Mumbai. Sharad Pawar was keen to project his daughter Supriya Sule as the national face of the party and his nephew Ajit Pawar as the State level face.

Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD)

Lalu Prasad Yadav-led RJD entered into an alliance with UPA and offered 12 out of the 40 seats in Bihar. 11 seats were for Congress and the remaining 1 for NCP. It was also known that RJD was seeking to ally with Nitish Kumar-led Janata Dal (United) after his fallout with the NDA.

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM)

Shibu Soren and Chief Minister Hemant Soren-led JMM fielded candidates in the three states (West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Odisha) apart from Jharkhand.

Shibu Soren actively campaigned in the tribal-dominated region to garner support to the JMM-INC alliance. They started their campaign from Dumka, the strong hold of the JMM. Shibu Soren was the sitting MP from Dumka in 2014. Bidyut Baran Mahato, the sitting JMM MLA from Baharagora quit the party and joined the BJP in March 2014. Later he contested from Jamshedpur seat on the BJP ticket.

Left Parties

The Communist Party of India Marxist CPI(M) and CPI

The CPI(M) formed an alliance with other left parties to contest elections in Kerala, Assam, Haryana, Jharkhand, Odisha, Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It fielded 94 candidates in the election. In West Bengal, CPI(M) fielded 42 candidates out of which 20 were contesting for the first time. The CPI contested the elections in an alliance with CPI(M) for one seat and with INC for the two seats in Telangana.

Other Parties

Aam Aadmi Party (AAP)

Arvind Kejriwal-led AAP contested the Lok Sabha elections for the first time in 2014. The party was formed in 2012 and is the ruling party in the state of Delhi. Manish Sisodia, Yogendra Yadav, Gopal Rai, Ashutosh and Kumar Vishwas were the key members of the party. The party in expansion mode fielded candidates in 432 seats across India. They did not form alliances with any other party.

In February 2014, the AAP released its first set of 20 candidates and fielded Kumar Vishwas against Rahul Gandhi from Amethi, Medha Patkar from Mumbai North East, banker Meera Sanyal against Congress heavyweight Milind Deora and Ashutosh against Kapil Sibal from Chandni Chowk seat. On BJP’s announcement of Narendra Modi’s nomination from Varanasi, Arvind Kejriwal filed his nomination for the same constituency. Although AAP fielded candidates across India, it was successful only in Punjab where it won four seats. Though it created a small dent in the vote share, the party could not create an impact on the national level and failed to win a single seat in Delhi, where it is the ruling party.

Campaign and Issues

AAP aggressively campaigned across India focusing mainly on the urban areas. Arvind Kejriwal, who was pitted against Modi started his campaign in Varanasi by holding “chaupals” or small public meetings in villages. He targeted farmers and weavers from the Muslim community and promised that if voted to power, AAP would provide higher market value for their crops to avoid middlemen. Taking a jibe at Narendra Modi’s “helicopter” visit, he said that the BJP, Congress and other parties are waging “hoardings war” against each other and only he had “500 rupees, people’s love and parent’s blessings.”

Kumar Vishwas was set against Rahul Gandhi to target him constantly, while Arvind Kejriwal claimed that the 49-day Delhi government did more than what Rahul Gandhi could not do in 10 years. Amethi district administration warned Kumar Vishwas against using national flag while filing for the nomination. Also, he was banned from being the chief guest in a Kavi Sammelan. Later Vishwas claimed that the ban was put on the behest of the Congress.

All India Trinamool Congress (AITC)

Mamata Banerjee-led AITC contested the Lok Sabha elections from 20 states including West Bengal, Jharkhand, Tripura, Kerala and Maharashtra. In West Bengal, it fielded candidates for all the 42 seats and won 34 out of them. It fielded many newcomers like actor Dev, Shatabdi Roy, Tapas Pal from Krishnanagar, Footballer Bhaichung Bhutia from Darjeeling, veteran politician Dinesh Trivedi from Barrackpore, Sudip Bandopadhyay from North Kolkata and Mamata Banerjee’s nephew Abhishek Bandopadhyay from Diamond Harbour. It was heir apparent Abhishek’s first election.[47]

Campaign and Issues

Mamata Banerjee campaigned extensively in the villages of West Bengal before coming to Kolkata. She held rallies at Bally and Sonarpur before holding one at Tollygunge. Defending the state government decision of not handing over the Saradha scam case to the CBI, she said “Some like parrots know only one word CBI,” arguing, in none of the cases handed over to the CBI have provided any tangible results. Also, Anna Hazare expressed interest in campaigning on behalf of Mamata Banerjee-led AITC. "She lives in a 10 by 12 room, wears hawai chappal," he said. "I want to say that after 66 years of Independence nobody has thought of changing the economic system but, Mamata Ji has thought about it."

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)

Jayalalitha-led AIADMK, for the first time did not form an alliance with any party and decided to contest the elections independently. Tamil Nadu has 39 seats in Lok Sabha. AIADMK contested on all seats and won an overwhelming number of 37 seats to become the third largest party in the Lok Sabha. Promising free goods like mixer grinder, laptops, cows and goats, Jayalalitha launched the mobile campaigning where a two-min recorded message from her is heard talking about the party symbol seeking votes for a “prosperous India.”

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)

Mayawati-led BSP contested in 503 seats across 22 states in India and fielded candidates in all the 80 seats in UP. The party did not get into an alliance with any other party and hoped to win on the basis of social engineering. It failed to make an impact and faced its worst defeat in Lok Sabha polls. It failed to win a single seat in the Lok Sabha.

Mayawati and senior party leaders like Naseemuddin Siddiqui and Satish Chandra Mishra campaigned vigorously but could not compete with Modi wave. Dalits, the critical section of the vote bank was entirely charmed by Modi.

Samajwadi Party (SP)

Mulayam Singh Yadav-led SP to contest in 195 seats in 18 states across India in the 2014 Lok Sabha polls. The party fielded 78 candidates in Uttar Pradesh. It was routed in the polls and managed to win only five seats, all held by the family. Mulayam Singh Yadav from Azamgarh, Dimple Yadav from Kanauj, Akshay Yadav from Firozabad, Dharmendra Yadav from Badaun and Tej Pratap Yadav from Mainpuri. Mulayam Singh and his son Akhilesh Yadav campaigned aggressively against Modi saying "you don't know the full form of Modi, It is 'Model of Dividing India' and Modi wants to divide the country on the caste and religious lines."

Yuvajana Shramika Ryuthu Congress Party (YSR Congress Party)

The untimely death of the then incumbent Chief Minister Y.S. Rajashekhara Reddy in a helicopter crash in 2009 led to the formation of YSR Congress Party by an advocate and fan Siva Kumar. When his son Jaganmohan Reddy, the incumbent Congress MP from Kadapa was discouraged by the party to start a condolence tour, he resigned from the party taking several politicians with him. Jaganmohan and his mother Y.S. Vijaya Lakshmi (then incumbent Congress MLA from Pulivendula) both resigned from the party and joined the YSR Congress Party in 2011.

In the 2014 elections, the party did not ally with any other party and contested in all the 25 seats in Andhra Pradesh. The party fielded Jaganmohan’s mother Y.S. Vijayamma against BJP’s K. Haribabu from Visakhapatnam. The party performed quite well and sent nine MPs to the Lok Sabha.

Campaign and Issues

Riding on YSR’s public welfare schemes and people’s gratitude, the YSR Congress party fielded party honorary president Vijayamma from Visakhapatnam. Even before the BJP and TDP could iron out their last-minute alliances issues and declare the candidate, YSR Congress already started campaigning for Vijayamma in Visakhapatnam. Vijayamma campaigned extensively in other parts of the state.

After the elections, Jagan met Modi, the PM in waiting, and said that his party would extend "issue-based" support to the NDA government.

Janata Dal (United) JD(U)

On the appointment of Narendra Modi as the campaign leader of BJP for the 2014 general elections, the JD(U) broke the alliance with NDA and decided to contest the polls independently. Modi elevation as the alliance’s face for the elections did not sit well with Sharad Yadav and Nitish Kumar of the JD(U).

The party contested the polls independently in Bihar and won two seats.

Campaign and Issues

Bihar became a battleground for Narendra Modi, Nitish Kumar, Lalu Prasad Yadav and Sharad Yadav. It became a matter of prestige and political survival. Nitish Kumar and Sharad Yadav used the Development card to woo the voters. Sharad Yadav of the JD(U) was pitted against Pappu Yadav and Vijay Kumar Yadav of the RJD and BJP, respectively.

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS)

MNS was formed in 2006 by Raj Thackeray after his fight with his uncle, Bal Thackeray. He quit Shiv Sena to form MNS. MNS declared that they would support Modi but went on field candidates in 10 seats against arch rival Shiv Sena. The party focused on development and governance instead of their main rhetoric against north Indians and migrants in Maharashtra.

All India Forward Bloc AIFB

AIFB fielded candidates in 38 seats in 8 states including West Bengal, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Bihar. They won from the seats of Purulia and Cooch Behar in West Bengal. It joined the LDF (Left Democratic Front) in Kerala. Party general secretary Debabrata Biswas said, “The main objective of the Forward Bloc is to strengthen and unite the Left, democratic and secular forces to achieve an alternative policy for reconstruction of the country.”

Third Front

14 political parties including Samajwadi Party, CPI, AIADMK, AIFB, BJD and JVM formed an anti-BJP, anti-Congress alliance for the general elections in 2014.

Campaign and Issues

UP Chief Minister and Samajwadi Party leader, Akhilesh Yadav said, "The way in which election trend appears, BJP will not be able to reach the magic figure and form a government. Congress will emerge weakest after elections...the parties associated with the Third Front will get a maximum number of seats and will form the next government", Yadav said. He further said, ‘’Now, neither an alliance will break, nor there will be any fissures due to ego...If alliances had given temporary governments, NDA and UPA have also completed their tenures... this time Third Front will give the stable government”.

Opinion Polls

Various news channels and opinion polls predicted a lead for the BJP-led NDA, but almost none predicted such a massive victory for BJP. Owning to the Modi wave and general public’s discontentment with the incumbent UPA government, opinion polls predicted a change of government in the centre. The multiple corruption scams like 2G scam, Coalgate, CWG, and Adarsh scam were unearthed during the UPA rule. It was only 5Forty3 Datalabs that predicted Congress party's coming decimation as early as March when they projected a vote-share below 20% for the Grand Old Party. On April 10th, 5Forty3 Datalabs declared that the mandate for Modi would be the largest since 1984 when Rajiv Gandhi swept to power with 404 MPs.

Month Polling Organization NDA UPA Others
January'2014 India Today - Nation Opinion poll 212 103 228
February'2014 ABP News – Nielsen 236 92 215
March'2014 ABP News – Nielsen 233 119 191
April'2014 NDTV - Hansa Research 275 111 157

Exit Polls

The Election Commission banned all opinion polls 48 hours before the phase 1 of the general elections 2014. The ban was to ensure that the voters were not swayed by anything that was in the media. The ban was lifted after 6 pm on 12 May 2014, the last day of the 9-phase elections. Though almost all the media channels and opinion polls sources predicted that the BJP-led NDA would form the government at the centre, none apart from 5Forty3 Datalabs and Chanakya could get the most accurate figures.

Hindi news channel News24-led Chanakya gave an accurate seat projection but was off the mark in terms of vote-share projections while 5Forty3 Datalabs was spot-on about vote-share projections. The others though captured the popular sentiment were way off the mark when the actual results were declared.

Polling Organization NDA UPA Others Publish Date
Times Now – ORG 249 148 146 12-May
CNN IBM - CSDS Lokniti 270-282 92-102 150-160 12-May
India TV - C Voter 289 107 147 12-May
News 24 – Chanakya 340 70 133 12-May
ABP News – Nielsen 281 97 165 12-May
India Today Cicero 272 (±11) 115 (±5) 156 (±6) 12-May
NDTV - Hansa Research 279 103 161 14-May

Controversies

The 2014 general elections saw many controversies during campaign, ranging from inflammatory speeches to news about paid media and opinion polls agencies fudging data for money.

  • India Today suspended agency C Voter when a sting operation conducted by television channel News Express revealed that various opinion polls conducting agencies were willing to edit data and findings for money.
  • The Election Commission issued warnings to various politicians whose speeches and statements were feared to giving rise to communal tensions. Abu Azmi from Samajwadi Party was banned from holding road shows, Amit Shah from BJP was banned from holding rallies in UP and an FIR was also launched against him. Azam Khan from Samajwadi Party was banned from holding public meetings or road shows after he said, “Kargil ki pahadiyon ko fateh karne wale Hindu sainik nahin balki Musalmaan the (Muslim soldiers conquered the hills of Kargil and the Hindu soldiers).”
  • After the elections, the Election Commission said that it reported 12,000 cases of paid media and it issued notices to 3053 cases. Out of 3053, 694 cases were found to be genuine.

Voting

The 16th general elections were one of its kind due to many reasons. It was held in 9 phases, spread across 36 days covering the entire country. The elections started on 7 April 2014 and completed on 12 May 2014. The election cost around INR 3,500 cr. to the government and parties were estimated to spend INR 30,500 cr., making it the most expensive elections in India. Some highlights of the 2014 general elections are:

  • 834 million people approx. were eligible to vote. 2.7 percent of the total voters were between 18-19 years of age.
  • The number of male electors was around 437 million and 67 percent voted. The number of female electors was around 397 million and 65.54 percent voted. In total, 66.44 percent of the eligible population voted in the 16th general election.
  • None of the Above (NOTA) was introduced in Indian elections for the first time. India became the 12th country in the world to use it. Approx. 1.09 percent of all votes polled chose NOTA as their option. [48]
  • Nearly 669000 poll officials worked along with 800000 paramilitary forces for the support. The CPI (Maoist) declared a nation-wide boycott of the elections, and that led to increased security across the nation.
  • 1029000 EVMs were used across 927553 polling stations. The total number of counting centres were 989.
  • The total number of contestants were 8251 out of which 17 percent of them declared pending criminal cases against them.
  • Out of the 543 constituencies, 84 were from SC category, 47 from ST category and remaining 412 were from general category.
  • Apart from choppers and charter planes, the demand for SUVs jumped from 400 to 800 in the last two months of campaigning.

State-wise voter Turn-out

(Based on data published by Election Commission of India)

State Male Electors Male Voters Male Turnout Female Electors Female Voters Female Turnout Total Electors Total Voters Total Turnout Total seats
Andaman & Nicobar Islands (UT) 1,42,782 101178 70.86 % 126578 89150 70.43 % 269360 190328 70.66 % 1
Andhra Pradesh 3,26,70,930 24352913 74.54 % 32267820 24005632 74.39 % 64938750 48358545 74.47 % 42
Arunachal Pradesh 3,79,627 289291 76.2 % 379760 307665 81.02 % 759387 596956 78.61 % 2
Assam 97,87,209 7876763 80.48 % 9098065 7209120 79.24 % 18885274 15085883 79.88 % 14
Bihar 3,40,92,938 18779230 55.08 % 29668858 17106136 57.66 % 63761796 35885366 56.28 % 40
Chandigarh (UT) 3,33,621 244956 73.42 % 281593 208499 74.04 % 615214 453455 73.71 % 1
Chhattisgarh 89,15,783 6320693 70.89 % 8707266 5934886 68.16 % 17623049 12255579 69.54 % 11
Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT) 1,06,215 87800 82.66 % 90402 77486 85.71 % 196617 165286 84.06 % 1
Daman & Diu (UT) 57,011 42378 74.33 % 54816 44855 81.83 % 111827 87233 78.01 % 1
Goa 5,28,308 395766 74.91 % 532469 421234 79.11 % 1060777 817000 77.02 % 2
Gujarat 2,12,29,092 14259115 67.17 % 19374012 11564888 59.69 % 40603104 25824003 63.6 % 26
Haryana 87,16,612 6351584 72.87 % 7381137 5143566 69.69 % 16097749 11495150 71.41 % 10
Himachal Pradesh 24,74,430 1569632 63.43 % 2335641 1528869 65.46 % 4810071 3098501 64.42 % 4
Jammu & Kashmir 38,02,021 1927584 50.7 % 3400142 1639279 48.21 % 7202163 3566863 49.52 % 6
Jharkhand 1,06,85,149 6860476 64.21 % 9641594 6122464 63.5 % 20326743 12982940 63.87 % 14
Karnataka 2,35,86,223 16165832 68.54 % 22625886 14873056 65.73 % 46212109 31038888 67.17 % 28
Kerala 1,17,34,258 8678185 73.96 % 12592391 9297708 73.84 % 24326649 17975893 73.89 % 20
Lakshadweep (UT) 25,433 21585 84.87 % 24489 21654 88.42 % 49922 43239 86.61 % 1
Madhya Pradesh 2,53,09,830 16734556 66.12 % 22808210 12905240 56.58 % 48118040 29639796 61.6 % 29
Maharashtra 4,27,43,156 26714578 62.5 % 37974127 22004266 57.95 % 80717283 48718844 60.36 % 48
Manipur 8,71,431 685427 78.66 % 902894 727210 80.54 % 1774325 1412637 79.62 % 2
Meghalaya 7,77,639 524774 67.48 % 789602 553284 70.07 % 1567241 1078058 68.79 % 2
Mizoram 3,46,219 216167 62.44 % 355951 217034 60.97 % 702170 433201 61.69 % 1
Nagaland 6,00,490 529325 88.15 % 582458 509585 87.49 % 1182948 1038910 87.82 % 1
NCT of Delhi 70,51,098 4653522 66 % 5660138 3618244 63.93 % 12711236 8271766 65.07 % 7
Odisha 1,51,94,309 11032523 72.61 % 14001732 10499752 74.99 % 29196041 21532275 73.75 % 21
Puducherry (UT) 4,32,048 351360 81.32 % 469309 388657 82.81 % 901357 740017 82.10 % 1
Punjab 1,03,27,116 7262625 70.33 % 9280892 6582507 70.93 % 19608008 13845132 70.61 % 13
Rajasthan 2,26,38,323 14627976 64.62 % 20331124 12482068 61.39 % 42969447 27110044 63.09 % 25
Sikkim 1,90,886 158222 82.89 % 179725 150745 83.88 % 370611 308967 83.37 % 1
Tamil Nadu 2,75,71,785 20249949 73.44 % 27542720 20370491 73.96 % 55114505 40620440 73.7 % 39
Tripura 12,17,575 1035722 85.06 % 1171244 988137 84.37 % 2388819 2023859 84.72 % 2
Uttar Pradesh 7,60,71,444 44979619 59.13 % 62894376 36112683 57.42 % 138965820 81092302 58.35 % 80
Uttarakhand 37,51,098 2268767 60.48 % 3378841 2123123 62.84 % 7129939 4391890 61.6 % 5
West Bengal 3,26,89,449 26886706 82.25 % 30143679 24735849 82.06 % 62833128 51622555 82.16 % 42
India Total 43,70,51,538 293236779 67.09 % 397049941 260565022 65.63 % 834101479 553801801 66.4 % 543

Phase details of the 16th Lok Sabha elections

  • Phase 1: The elections started on 7 April 2014 in Assam and Tripura covering six constituencies; five from Assam and one from Tripura. The average turnout in Assam was 75 percent and 60 percent in Tripura. 13 candidates contested for the seat of Tripura West. The constituencies in Assam were Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Kaliabor, Lakhimpur and Tezpur.
  • Phase 2: Held on 9 April 2014, this phase covered the states of Arunachal Pradesh (two seats), Meghalaya (two seats), Manipur (one seat) and Nagaland (one seat).
  • Phase 3: By this phase, the election was in full swing. It covered 92 seats spread across 14 states including 6 seats in Bihar, 20 in Kerala, 7 in Delhi and 10 each in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra. There were major seats in the fray, namely the Chandni Chowk seat closely contested by Kapil Sibal of the Congress, Ashutosh of the AAP and Harsh Vardhan of the BJP. Other important seats and candidates were Kirron Kher from the BJP and Gul Panag of the AAP challenging senior Congress leader Pawan Kumar Bansal. Others include Yogendra Yadav from Gurgaon and Shashi Tharoor from Thiruvananthapuram. The voter turnout saw a rise in numbers compared to 2009. Maharashtra saw 56 percent to 55.7 percent in 2009, Kerala saw 75 percent to 73.52 percent in 2009, Jharkhand saw 58 percent to 50.9 percent in 2009, MP 66 percent to 53.66 percent in 2009 and J&K saw a healthy 65 percent compared to 49 percent in 2009.
  • Phase 4: Held on 12 April 2014, the phase covered seven constituencies in four states of Goa, Assam, Tripura and Sikkim.
  • Phase 5: This phase saw the maximum amount of polling. It covered 121 seats in 12 states. Conducted on 17 April 2014, this covered all the 28 seats in Karnataka, 20 in Rajasthan, 19 in Maharashtra and 11 in Uttar Pradesh and Odisha each, among other states. Important candidates included Misha Bharti of the RJD from Patliputra, Shatrughan Sinha of the BJP from Patna Sahib and Ajit Jogi of the Congress from Maha Samund. The turnout of 81.57 percent was highest in West Bengal and lowest of 54 percent was recorded in Madhya Pradesh. The turnout in Karnataka which had all its 28 seats in the fray was at 66 percent, and for the 11 seats in UP, it stood at 62.52 percent.
  • Phase 6: 117 constituencies of 12 states were part of this phase of elections. Till this phase, the elections were clear of violence and controversies. In this phase, a presiding officer was killed in Anantnag in J&K, 8 polling and policemen killed by suspected Maoists in Dumka, Jharkhand and one policemen was killed in Kokrajhar in Assam. The turnout of 83 percent was highest in Puducherry for the single seat, West Bengal registered 82 percent for its 6 seats and Tamil Nadu registered 73 percent for all the 39 seats. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh registered better figures than 2009. The sensitive seat of Anantnag saw a rise of one percent compared to 27 percent in 2009.
  • Phase 7: 89 seats from 9 states were part of this phase. This phase included important leaders like BJP PM Candidate Narendra Modi, L.K. Advani, Raj Nath Singh, Arun Jaitley and Sonia Gandhi. All the 26 seats from Gujarat were in this phase and it recorded around 62.4 percent votes. Vadodara, from where Narendra Modi contested, saw a turnout of 70 percent. Punjab registered its highest ever turnout of 73 percent, UP saw 59 percent, Telangana region saw 70 percent, Bihar 60 percent, Dadra and Nagar Haveli saw 85 percent and J&K saw 25 percent turnout. The phase also saw some controversies when two FIRs were booked against Modi for holding a media briefing outside a polling station and holding the BJP symbol while addressing the media. N. Chandrababu Naidu's vote was marked as ineligible after he claimed, “Due to our pre-poll arrangement, I cast both my votes for lotus symbol (of the BJP).”
  • Phase 8: Conducted on 7 May 2014, this phase covered 64 seats across seven states. It had all the 25 seats from Andhra Pradesh, 15 seats from UP, 7 from Bihar and 6 from West Bengal. All the seven states recorded higher voter turnout compared to 2009 elections. Both Andhra Pradesh and Uttarakhand, posted highest-ever turnouts of 76.01 percent and 62 percent respectively.
  • Phase 9: The final phase of the elections saw 41 seats across the three states: Bihar, UP and West Bengal. High profile candidates like Narendra Modi, Arvind Kejriwal and SP chief Mulayam Singh Yadav were in the fray. Though barring a skirmish in North 24 Parganas in West Bengal injured 13 people, the phase overall was peaceful and without any controversy. West Bengal registered 79.96 percent turnout, Bihar saw 58 percent and UP saw 55.2 percent voter turnout.

The 2014 general elections had the record overall voter turnout of 66.38 percent. It surpassed the 1984 general elections turnout of 64.01 percent in the wake of the assassination of PM Indira Gandhi. The overall turnout in 2009 was 58.01 percent.

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Voting Turnout trend from 1952 to 2014 (in percentage)

Year BJP (no. seats) INC (no. of seats) CPI + CPM (No. of seats) Others No. Of Parties
1952 NA 364 16 109 54
1957 NA 371 27 96 16
1962 NA 361 29 104 28
1967 NA 283 23 237 26
1971 NA 352 48 118 54
1977 NA 154 22 366 54
1980 NA 353 37 139 38
1984 2 415 22 105 37
1989 85 197 45 202 115
1991 120 244 49 121 147
1996 161 140 32 210 211
1998 182 141 32 188 178
1999 182 114 33 214 178
2004 138 145 43 217 217
2009 116 206 20 201 364
2014 282 44 9 208 465

Voting Turnout trend from 1952 to 2014 (Seat-wise)

Re-polls

In 2014 general elections, re-polls were held in 301 polling stations across 36 states and UTs in the country—12 stations in West Bengal, 8 in UP, 8 in Odisha, 5 in Maharashtra, 6 in Madhya Pradesh, 9 in Karnataka and 13 in Bihar were among them. The re-polls were conducted due to various reasons like malfunctioning EVMs or non-functioning EVMs, names missing from the list. Other reasons included allegations against poll officials, poll-related violence in West Bengal, rigging, booth capturing, loss of lives in conflict zones like J&K, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand, etc. Places like J&K were also affected by boycott calls, and No Voter turnout was observed in certain places of Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Madhya Pradesh.

Opposition parties, the Left and BJP demanded re-polling in some booths in West Bengal on the grounds of rigging and booth capturing. Complaining of vote rigging, the AAP demanded re-polling in 110 booths in Gurgaon. It was also reported that six million names were missing from the voters’ list in Maharashtra. This created a furore and demands from CBI enquiry to re-polling in all the 48 seats were made by the political parties.

Voting Pattern

The BJP-led NDA won 39 out of 74 seats in the places where the Muslim electorate ranged from 21 to 95 percent. In UP, the BJP won all 16 seats where the Muslim electorate ranged between 21 and 50 percent. In Bihar, the NDA won five out of nine such seats. While parties like BSP and SP tried to appease the Muslim voters, the BJP was successful in grabbing the OBC and Dalit votes. Also, out of the 2.31 cr. first-time voters, 39 percent voted for BJP and only 19 percent voted for the Congress.

Also, in the assembly segments, the BJP led in 52 segments. Similarly, in Maharashtra’s Vidarbha region, the NDA led in 246 assembly segments out of the total 288. Party-wise break-up showed that the BJP led in 133 segments and the Shiv Sena in 101 segments. The ruling Congress along with its ally (NCP) led in 40 segments.

Results

The results for the 16th Lok Sabha elections were announced on 16 May 2014. The BJP emerged as the single largest party with clear majority bagging 282 seats. It comfortably crossed the halfway mark of 272 to form a government on its own without forming an alliance. The ruling INC came a distant second with 44 seats. This was the worst performance by the Congress party since its inception. The AIADMK came a close third with an impressive win of 37 seats out of 39 seats in Tamil Nadu. Parties like BSP, SP, RJD, NCP and the left parties failed to make a mark and lost many seats. For most of them, the 2014 performance was the worst ever. The AAP, contesting in general elections for the first time, could muster only four seats in Punjab out of ambitious 403 seats it contested in.

It was the first time that a non-Congress party achieved a clear majority in the Lok Sabha. Though the various opinion polls and exit polls correctly gauged the party/alliance that would come into power, none apart from the News24 channel could predict the numbers. They were way off the final numbers.

Also, the elected number of Muslim MPs to the Lok Sabha was the least. The number stood at 22. West Bengal sent six, Bihar sent four, J&K and Kerala sent three each, and Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh sent one each. Uttar Pradesh had no Muslim MPs.

Party Leader Seats Contested Seats Won Total Votes % of seats % of Votes
BJP Narendra Modi 428 282 171660230 51.9 31.3
INC Sonia Gandhi 464 44 109735841 8.1 19.3
AIADMK J. Jayalalitha 40 37 18111579 6.8 3.3
TMC Mamata Banerjee 131 34 20378052 6.3 3.8
BJD Biju Patnaik 21 20 9489946 3.7 1.7
Shiv Sena Uddhav Thackeray 20 18 10050652 3.3 1.9
TDP N. Chandrababu Naidu 25 16 14099230 2.9 2.5
TRS K. Chandrashekhar Rao 16 11 6736270 2.0 1.2
YSR Party Jaganmohan Reddy 25 9 13391280 1.7 2.4
CPI (M) Sitaram Yechury 93 9 17986773 1.7 3.28

Top 10 parties on the basis of the number of seats

Party Leader Seats Contested Seats Won
BJP Narendra Modi 428 282
INC Sonia Gandhi 464 44
AIADMK J. Jayalalitha 40 37
TMC Mamata Banerjee 131 34
BJD Biju Patnaik 21 20
Shiv Sena Uddhav Thackeray 20 18
TDP N. Chandrababu Naidu 25 16
TRS K. Chandrashekhar Rao 16 11
YSR Party Jaganmohan Reddy 25 9
CPI M Sitaram Yerchury 93 9
Lok Jan Shakti Party (LJSP) Ram Vilas Paswan 7 6
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) Sharad Pawar 36 6
Samajwadi Party (SP) Mulayam Singh Yadav 197 5
Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) Lalu Prasad Yadav 30 4
Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) Sukhbir Singh Badal 10 4
Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) Arvind Kejriwal 432 4
All India United Democratic Front (AIUDF) Badruddin Ajmal 18 3
Independents NA 3234 3
Rashtriya Lok Samata Party (RLSP) Upendra Kushwaha 4 3
Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) Om Prakash Chautala 10 2
Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) K M Kader Mohideen 25 2
Janata Dal (Secular) H D Deve Gowda 34 2
Janata Dal (United) Nitish Kumar 93 2
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) Shibu Soren 21 2
Apna Dal Krishna Patel 7 2
AIMIM Asaduddin Owaisi 5 1
All India N R Congress N Rangaswamy 1 1
CPI S Sudhakar Reddy 67 1
Kerala Congress K M Mani 1 1
J&KPDP Mehbooba Mufti 5 3
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) N K Premchandran 1 1
Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) Pawan Kumar Chamling 1 1
Nagaland Peoples Front (NPF) Neiphiu Rio 1 1
National People’s Party (NPP) Conrad Sangma 7 1
Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) Anbumani Ramadoss 9 1
Swabhimani Paksha Raju Shetti 2 1

Party-wise Result Analysis on all the 543 Seats

The Association for Democratic Reforms analysed 8214 candidates out of the total 8251 contesting in the 2014 general elections. According to them, 1405 or 17 percent of the analysed candidates had declared the criminal cases pending against them out of which 909 or 11 percent were of serious nature; 2221 or 27 percent of candidates declared that they had assets worth more than one cr. 4031 or 49 percent of the total candidates were graduates.

They also analysed the 543 winners, and among them, 186 or 34 percent had criminal cases against them with 120 or 22 percent having serious criminal cases registered. 444 or 82 percent of the 543 MPs had assets more than one cr. and 406 or 75 percent of them were graduates.

Outgoing Cabinet Ministers and other important UPA leaders who lost seats

Kapil Sibal – Minister of Law & Justice – Chandni Chowk, NCT Delhi

Salman Khursheed - Minister of External Affairs – Farrukhabad, UP

Meera Kumar – Lok Sabha Speaker – Sasaram, Bihar

Ajit Singh – Minister of Civil Aviation – Baghpat, UP

Sriprakash Jaiswal – Minister of Coal – Kanpur, UP

Farooq Abdullah – Minister of New and Renewable Energy – Srinagar, J&K

Ghulam Nabi Azad – Minister of Health – Udhampur, J&K

V Narayanasamy – Minister of State – Puducherry

Sachin Pilot – Minister of Corporate Affairs – Ajmer

Girija Vyas – Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation – Chittorgarh

Bhanwar Jitendra Singh – Minister of State, Defence and Youth Affairs and Sports – Alwar

State-wise results (Including UTs)

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 48.2 1
INC 44.1 0
AAP 2 0
AITC 1.2 0
CPM 0.9 0
Others 3.6 0

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands has one seat in the Lok Sabha. In 2014, BJP’s Bishnu Pada Ray won from the seat defeating the state Congress president Kuldeep Rai Sharma of Congress by 7812 votes. Ray was the sitting MP, and it was his third win after 1999 and 2009 as he was able to retain 48.2 percent of the vote share. Though he was not the first choice of the party, his deep connection with the electorate was the reason for the selection.

Andhra Pradesh

No. of seats 25
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 7.2 2
INC 2.9 0
TDP 40.8 15
YSRCP 45.7 8
JASPA 0.7 0
Others 2.7 0

The 2014 elections saw a lot of political and geographical changes in Andhra Pradesh. The bill for formation of Telangana was passed just before the elections. Out of the total 42 seats, Andhra Pradesh retained 25, and the remaining 17 went to Telangana. Also, the YSR Congress Party formed in 2011 became a force to reckon with in the elections. BJP formed an alliance with ruling party TDP which gave them rich returns. The YSR party contested on its own, and though got eight seats grabbing the maximum vote share of 45.7 percent.

Arunachal Pradesh

No. of seats 2
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 46.6 1
INC 41.7 1
AITC 1.5 0
NCP 1 0
PPA 8 0
Others 1.2 0

Kiren Rijiju had left BJP after his defeat in the 2009 elections. He returned to the party in 2012 and defeated Takam Sanjoy of the Congress by a margin of 41, 378 votes and captured 46.6 percent of the vote share. Known as the BJP’s face in the North East, Rijiju is currently the Minister of State for Home Affairs.

Assam

No. of seats 14
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 36.9 7
INC 29.9 3
AIUDF 15 3
IND 9.6 1
AGP 3.9 0
BPF 2.2 0

In 2014, the BJP was able to break into the Congress stronghold in Assam and win seven seats compared to four in 2009. Increasing its vote share by a vote share from 16.2 percent in 2009 to 36.9 percent in 2014, it made the inroads into traditional Congress seats of Dibrugarh, Tezpur, Lakhimpur and Jorhat. Though Tarun Gogoi, the Congress CM of the state downplayed the effect of Modi-wave in the state, the results were one of the lowest ever for the party. He resigned as the CM taking the responsibility of the defeat.

Bihar

No. of seats 40
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 29.9 22
INC 8.6 2
RJD 20.5 4
LJP 6.5 6
JD(U) 16 2
BLSP 3.1 3
NCP 1.6 1
Others 13.8 0

Before the 2014 elections, the Janata Dal (United)—an important ally of the BJP—quit NDA. Nitish Kumar, the CM of Bihar, was not happy with the PM candidature of Narendra Modi. So, the BJP had no choice but to seek an alliance with Ram Vilas Paswan-led Lok Janshakti Party(LJP). Though it was reported that the JD(U) would form alliance with Congress, in the end, they contested on their own. Lalu Prasad’s RJD allied with Congress in order to stop the BJP juggernaut. The results were humbling to everyone, especially to Nitish Kumar and Lalu Prasad Yadav who got two and four seats, respectively. The BJP-LJP alliance grabbed 28 seats and 36.4 percent of the vote share.

Chandigarh

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 42.5 1
INC 27 0
AAP 24.1 0
BSP 3.5 0
CPI(ML)L 0.4 0
Others 2.5 0

The Union Territory of Chandigarh saw a three-pronged fight between Kirron Kher of the BJP, Gul Panag of the AAP and Pawan Kumar Bansal of Congress. Bansal, the sitting MP and incumbent Railway minister of the UPA government, lost to Kirron Kher by a margin of 69642 votes. Kirron Kher was contesting elections for the first time and so was Gul Panag of AAP, who got 108679 votes. BJP grabbed 42.5 percent of votes, a significant rise from 29.7 percent in 2009.

Chhattisgarh

No. of seats 11
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 49.7 10
INC 39.1 1
AAP 1.2 0
BSP 2.4 0
GGP 0.8 0
Others 6.8 0

The BJP maintained its stronghold on Chhattisgarh and won 10 out of 11 seats. Raman Singh-led state government also helped solidify the image of the party. Raman Singh, the state CM since 2003, recently completed 5000 days of uninterrupted governance. Bettering its performance in 2009 elections, the BJP increased its vote share from 45 to 49.7 percent in 2014. It also captured the Naxal-hit Bastar constituency. The Congress could win only the Durg constituency.

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 48.2 1
INC 44.1 0
AAP 2 0
AITC 1.2 0
CPM 0.9 0
Others 3.6 0

The lone seat of Dadra & Nagar Haveli was heavily contested by 11 candidates from BJP, INC, AAP as well as independents and left parties. The BJP’s Gomanbhai Naubhai Patel retained his seat, defeating Mohanbhai Sanjibhai Delkar of the Congress by 6214 votes.

Daman & Diu

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 54.7 1
INC 43.9 0
AAP 0.8 0
BSP 0.6 0

Continuing on its winning spree, the BJP retained the lone seat in Daman & Diu as well. Lalubhai Babubhai Patel of the BJP retained his seat by defeating Ketan Dahyabhai Patel of the Congress by 9222 votes. Only four candidates contested for this seat.

NCT of Delhi

No. of seats 7
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 46.6 7
INC 33.1 0
AAP 15.2 0
BSP 1.2 0
CPI 0.1 0
Others 3.8 0

The NCT of Delhi holds seven seats in the Lok Sabha. In 2014 election, it was the battleground between the BJP and AAP. The AAP wanted to perform well on the home turf in its first general election. All the seven seats were closely contested with many known faces in the fray. The results were shocking for the AAP as BJP had won all the seven seats. The Congress also suffered a huge setback, going to 0 from 7 in 2009. Its vote share fell from a staggering 57.1 percent in 2009 to a measly 1.2 percent in 2014. The anti-incumbency and anti-Congress sentiments helped the BJP hugely and improved its vote share from 35.2 percent in 2009 to 46.6 percent in 2014. The AAP retained a significant 33.1 percent vote share.

Goa

No. of seats 2
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 54.1 2
INC 37 0
AAP 3.4 0
AITC 1.5 0
CPI 1.2 0
Others 2.8 0

In 2014 elections, the BJP won Lok Sabha seats of both North Goa and South Goa. With vote share of 54. percent, the BJP’s Shripad Yesso Naik and Adv. Narendra Keshav Sawaikar won from North Goa and South Goa, respectively. Shripad Naik defeated Ravi Naik of Congress by a margin of 105599 votes and Adv. Narendra Sawaikar defeated Aleixo Reginaldo Lourenco by 32,330 votes. AAP fielded two candidates but failed to make an impact. 2014 elections also saw record turnout, 76.82 percent voted compared to 55 percent in 2009.

Gujarat

No. of seats 26
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 60.1 26
INC 33.5 0
AAP 1.2 0
BSP 1 0
NCP 0.9 0
Others 3.3 0

For Gujarat, BJP won all the 26 Lok Sabha seats and created history. The BJP PM Candidate Narendra Modi contested from Vadodara and won by a huge margin of 570000 votes. Other winners included L K Advani from Gandhinagar and Paresh Rawal from Ahmedabad East. Congress fielded Madhusudan Mistry against Narendra Modi in Vadodara. Madhusudan Mistry was a close Rahul Gandhi aide and a part of Congress’s election coordination committee formed by Rahul Gandhi. He lost to Narendra Modi by 5,70,000 votes, the highest margin in 2014 elections and the second highest in India’s election history. Other prominent Congress leaders who lost were Shankarsinh Vaghela, Dinsha Patel, Bharat Solanki and Tushar Chaudhary. BJP grabbed 60.1 percent of the vote share. Congress garnered 33.5 percent of the vote share.

Haryana

No. of seats 10
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 34.8 7
INC 23 1
AAP 4.3 0
BSP 4.6 0
INLD 24.4 2
HJCBL 6.1 0
Others 2.8 0

The ruling Congress government saw disastrous results for 2014 elections. Its winning tally went down from nine seats in 2009 to just one in 2014. The BJP, on the other hand, registered an impressive show by winning 7 out of 8 seats. The INLD won the remaining two seats. The BJP’s alliance party of Haryana Janhit Congress failed to put up a show, and so did the AAP, which fielded its CM candidate Yogendra Yadav in Gurgaon among other nine candidates. One interesting point is that out of the eight BJP candidates, four were ex-Congress members. BJP vote share increased from a meagre 12.1 percent in 2009 to 34.8 percent in 2014. Whereas, the Congress party’s vote share dropped from a healthy 41.8 percent in 2009 to 23 percent in 2014.

Himachal Pradesh

No. of seats 4
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 53.9 4
INC 41.1 0
AAP 2.1 0
CPM 0.8 0
BSP 0.7 0
Others 1.4 0

In 2014, the BJP bettered its performance in Himachal Pradesh by winning all the four seats, increasing its vote share from 49.6 percent in 2009 to 53.9 percent in 2014. The BJP’s Anurag Thakur won from Hamirpur, ex-CM Shanta Kumar defeated Chander Kumar of the Congress by 1,70,072 votes in Kangra. Also, the ruling CM’s wife Pratibha Singh lost to newbie Ram Swaroop Sharma of the BJP. The Congress’s vote share fell from 45.6 percent to 41.1 percent and other parties like AAP, CPM, BSP, etc. failed to make a difference.

Jammu and Kashmir

No. of seats 6
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 32.6 3
INC 23.1 0
JKPDP 20.7 3
JKNC 11.2 0
JPC 2 0
Others 10.4 0

The state of J&K holds six seats in Lok Sabha. In 2014, the BJP registered an impressive win by bagging three seats out of the six. The remaining three were taken by Mehbooba Mufti-led PDP. The National Conference (JKNC) and Congress were completely rooted out in this election race. Prominent leaders like Farooq Abdullah of the JKNC lost to PDP’s Tariq Hamid Karra by a margin of 42,280 votes in Srinagar. It was Farooq Abdullah’s first loss after joining active politics in the 1980s. For Udhampur seat, the Congress cabinet minister Ghulam Nabi Azad lost to Dr. Jitendra Singh of the BJP by a margin of 60976 votes. The BJP also won the Ladakh seat by a mere 36 votes in a nail-biting finish.

Jharkhand

No. of seats 14
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 40.7 12
INC 13.5 0
JVM 12.3 0
AJSUP 3.8 0
JMM 9.4 2
Others 20.3 0

The BJP improved on its Lok Sabha performance and increased its winning seat tally to 12 from 8 in the previous election. Increasing on its vote share from 27.5 percent in 2009 to 40.7 percent in 2014, it added Chatra, Kodarma, Ranchi and Singhbhum constituencies to its list. Major regional parties like the JMM, JVM and AJSUP failed to make an impression. Shibu Soren-led JMM could win only two seats of Dumka and Rajmahal. The Ex-JMM MLA Bidyut Baran Mahato, who joined BJP due to seat sharing dispute, was fielded against JMM’s new inductee Niroop Mahanty and ex-SP Ajay Kumar of JVM. Bidyut Baran Mahato won comfortably by a margin of 99876 votes over Ajay Kumar.

Karnataka

No. of seats 28
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 43.4 17
INC 41.2 9
JD(S) 11.1 2
BSP 0.9 0
AAP 0.8 0
Others 2.6 0

The Modi-wave was carried on in Karnataka as well; the BJP won 17 out of the total 28 seats. Though the number of seats reduced from 19 in 2009 to 17 in 2014, the vote share increased from 41.6 percent to 43.4 percent. The Congress also enhanced its performance by taking its tally from six to nine seats in 2014 and increased its vote share as a result from 37.6 percent to 41.2 percent. The BJP veteran leader Ananth Kumar won comfortably against Congress’s high-profile candidate Nandan Nilekani by a big margin of 228575 votes. Other successful leaders form the BJP were ex-CM B S Yeddyurappa and Sadananda Gowda, and from Congress, veteran leaders Mallikarjun Kharge and M Veerappa Moily.

Kerala

No. of seats 20
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 10.5 0
INC 31.5 8
CPM 21.8 5
IUML 4.6 2
IND 11.5 2
RSP 0.2 1
CPI 7.7 1
Kerala Congress 2.4 1
Others 9.8 0

Despite the slogan “Ab ki baar, Modi sarkar” spell-bounded people around the country, it could not help the BJP open its account in Kerala, though its vote share increased from 6.3 percent in 2009 to 10.5 percent in 2014. The Congress-led UDF (United Democratic Fund) comprising of Congress, IUML and IND left candidates bagged 12 seats. The CPI (M)-led LDF (Left Democratic Fund) consisting of the CPI(M), CPI and RSP grabbed the remaining 8 seats. The BJP’s senior leader O Rajagopal, contesting from Thiruvananthapuram, gave a close contest to Congress’s Shashi Tharoor and lost by a margin of 15470 votes. The state also saw some shock exits like the Congress Spokesman P C Chacko losing to actor Innocent from Chalakudy, the CPI heavyweights M A Baby from Kollam and A Vijayaraghvan from Kozhikode.

Lakshadweep

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 0.4 0
INC 46.7 0
NCP 50.2 1
SP 1.1 0
CPM 1.1 0
Others 0.5 0

The lone seat of Lakshadweep was contested by seven candidates from the BJP, INC, NCP, CPI, CPM, SP and others. The constituency which always observed heavy turnout, saw 86.6 percent turnout in 2014. Sitting Congress MP Hamdullah Sayeed lost to P.P. Mohammad Faizal by a margin of 1535 votes. The INC and NCP covered 46.7 percent and 50.2 percent of the total vote share. The remaining parties could hardly make an impact and got 3.1 percent of the vote share.

Madhya Pradesh

No. of seats 29
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 54.8 27
INC 35.4 2
AAP 1.2 0
BSP 3.8 0
SP 0.8 0
Others 4 0

Continuing its sway in the heartland of Hindus, the BJP swept 27 out of 29 seats in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections in Madhya Pradesh. Increasing the tally of 16 from the previous election to 27 seats, the BJP’s vote share crossed the halfway mark and reached 54.8 percent. Apart from the Chhindwara seat (retained by Kamal Nath) and Guna seat, (retained by Jyotiraditya Scindia) the Congress lost the remaining 14 seats it won in 2009; prominent Congress leaders like Kantilal Bhuria, Meenakshi Natarajan and Laxman Singh were among them. The BJP leaders like Sumitra Mahajan from Indore, Sushma Swaraj from Vidisha and Alok Sanjar from Bhopal made their places in Lok Sabha.

Maharashtra

No. of seats 48
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 27.6 23
INC 18.3 2
Shiv Sena 20.8 18
BSP 2.6 0
NCP 16.1 4
SWP 2.3 1
Others 12.3 0

Everybody closely watched the verdict in the significant state of Maharashtra. With 48 seats in its kitty, it’s the second largest state in terms of Lok Sabha seats, after Uttar Pradesh. National parties as well as important regional parties were in the fray for 2014 elections. The BJP enterned an alliance with Shiv Sena and Swabhimani Paksha to contest all the 48 seats on an arrangement. Similarly, Congress allied, albeit fractured, with NCP to counter the Modi-wave. The BJP improved its tally from 9 to 23 seats and Shiv Sena from 11 to 18. Even Swabhimani Paksha’s Raju Shetti won the seat of Hatkanangale, taking the alliance tally to a tremendous 42 seats. The Congress-NCP alliance could garner only six seats with almost all the Congress MPs losing out. The Congress could retain only 2 out of the 17 seats, and NCP retained 4 out of the 8. Various leaders like Murli Deora, Priya Dutt, Gurudas Kamat, Sushilkumar Shinde and Praful Patel lost embarrassingly by huge margins. The sons of various veteran leaders in Congress were given the ticket to promote the young face of the party but failed to get noticed. Raj Thackeray-led Maharashtra Navnirman Sena garnered 1.5 percent of the vote share, leaving them stranded in the elections.

Manipur

No. of seats 2
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 12 0
INC 41.9 2
NPF 20 0
CPI 14.1 0
NCP 4.4 0
Others 7.6 0

The Congress continued to hold on its sway in Manipur and retained both the seats of inner and outer Manipur in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections. It captured 41.8 percent of the total vote share and both the candidates won by comfortable margins.

Meghalaya

No. of seats 2
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 9.2 0
INC 39 1
NPEP 22.8 1
UDP 10.2 0
AAP 0.8 0
Others 18 0

The two constituencies of Shillong and Tura saw a decent overall turnout of 68.8 percent. Veteran politician P. A. Sangma contested from Tura as an NPEP candidate and won by 39716 votes. Vincent Pala of the Congress won by a margin of 40379 votes. The BJP made an impressive entry and captured 9.2 percent of vote share on its maiden run in the state.

Mizoram

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
INC 49.3 1
AAP 2.8 0
IND 47.9 0

The sitting Congress MP C. L. Ruala won the lone seat from Mizoram defeating Robert Romawia Royte by 6154 votes. Royte, an independent candidate was supported by the eight party UDF alliance. The Congress got 49.3 percent of the vote share and the independent candidates backed by various alliances captured 47.9 percent, making it a close contest.

Nagaland

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
NPF 68.9 1
INC 30.2 0
SP(I) 0.9 0

The ruling CM Neiphiu Rio won the single seat from Nagaland. He defeated his nearest rival K V Pusa of Congress by a margin of 400225 votes. With a high voter turnout of 87.8 percent, Rio captured 68.9 percent of the vote share.

Odisha

No. of seats 21
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 21.9 1
INC 26.4 0
BJD 44.8 20
BSP 1 0
JMM 0.8 0
Others 5.1 0

Naveen Patnaik of the BJD won 20 of the 21 seats in the 2014 elections. The performance improved drastically for BJP compared to 2009; its seat tally increased from 14 to 20 and vote share from 37.2 percent to 44.8 percent. The BJP’s senior leader Jual Oram won the remaining seat of Sundargarh. The Congress, who captured six seats in 2009, was unable to open its account this time. Leaders like Prasad Harichandran, Soumya Ranjan Patnaik and ex-CM Giridhar Gamang failed to lure the voters. The Modi-wave too was not able to convert the well-attended Modi rallies into votes.

Puducherry

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
AINRC 35.6 1
INC 27.2 0
AIADMK 18.5 0
DMK 8.4 0
PMK 3.2 0
Others 7.1 0

Puducherry, a city that also hosts just one seat, was closely contested by the All India N R Congress, Congress and the AIADMK. At the beginning of the counting, the Congress’s V. Narayansamy was leading. However, later R. Radhakrishnan of All India N R Congress gathered a lead of 60000 votes and won by the margin of 60854 votes. M. V. Omalingam of the AIADMK came third by bagging 132657 votes. With the voter turnout of 82.1 percent, the AINRC captured 35.6 percent of the total vote share.

Punjab

No. of seats 13
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 8.8 2
SAD 26.4 4
AAP 24.5 4
INC 33.2 3
BSP 1.9 0
Others 5.2 0

The 2014 Lok Sabha election results for Punjab surprised all the contesting parties, but it remained and an eye-opener for the maiden runner—AAP. Inversely to their prediction of sweeping the poll massively, the party had to settle with just four seats. Congress, the ruling party SAD and its poll ally BJP were all left to introspect. AAP had fielded candidates on all the 13 seats and bagged the constituencies of Faridkot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Patiala and Sangrur with 24.5 percent of the vote share. The ruling SAD remained on four seats, and the BJP improved its tally by one seat with Kirron Kher winning the Chandigarh seat. However, the Congress lost five seats and retained only three seats while its vote share slid from 45.2 percent in 2009 to 33.2 percent in 2014. Veteran leaders Manish Tewari of the Congress and Navjot Siddhu of the BJP, the sitting MPs from Ludhiana and Amritsar respectively, did not contest the elections.

Rajasthan

No. of seats 25
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 55.6 25
INC 30.7 0
BSP 2.4 0
NPEP 1.2 0
AAP 1 0
Others 9.1 0

From winning 20 seats in 2009 to being wiped out of the state, the 2014 election results of Rajasthan perturbed the Congress party. This was the first time since 1987 that the Congress couldn’t secure a single seat in the state. The Congress leaders like Sachin Pilot, C P Joshi and Girija Vyas lost their constituencies. Modi-led BJP had swept over the state and all the 25 seats was seized by the BJP (it bagged four seats in 2009). With improved voter turnout from 48.4 percent in 2009 to 63.1 percent in 2014, the Modi-wave helped in capturing an impressive 55.6 percent of the total vote share.

Sikkim

No. of seats 1
Party Vote share % Seats Won
SDF 53.7 1
INC 2.4 0
SKM 40 0
BJP 2.4 0
AAP 0.8 0
Others 0.7 0

The ruling SDF MP Prem Das Rai retained his seat even in the 2014 elections. Though SDF faced a stiff challenge from the Sikkim Krantikari Morcha (SKM), Rai managed a comfortable win over Tek Nath Dhakal by a margin of 41472 votes.

Tamil Nadu

No. of seats 39
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 5.5 1
AIADMK 44.9 37
PMK 4.5 1
DMK 23.9 0
DMDK 5.2 0
Others 16 0

All the 39 seats in Tamil Nadu went for elections on 24 April 2014. Apart from regional heavyweights AIADMK and DMK, six other parties like the BJP, MDMK, PMK, INC and the AAP fielded their candidates. With a decent voter turnout of 73.1 percent, the election verdict resulted in an Amma-wave in Tamil Nadu. The AIADMK won 37 out of the 39 seats, leaving the seat of Kanyakumari to the BJP and the seat of Brahmapuri to the BJP’s ally, PMK. The DMK reduced from a formidable 18 to 0, and a similar fate was meted out to Congress. Capturing 44.9 percent of the vote share, the AIADMK jumped from its lacklustre performance of 9 seats in 2009 to 37 in 2014. The Congress party, contesting independently for the first time in the state, repeated its 1998 performance and drew a nought. Even a six party alliance and Modi-wave could only yield a single seat for the BJP.

Telangana

No. of seats 17
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 10.5 1
INC 24.7 2
TRS 34.9 11
TDP 12.3 1
YSRCP 4.5 1
AIMIM 3.5 1
Others 9.6 0

In its last leg of tenure, the UPA government decided to bifurcate Andhra Pradesh to form the state of Telangana in February 2014. The plan was to hold the assembly polls along with the general elections so that the subsequent winning party can form the government on 2 June 2014. The 42 seats of the erstwhile Andhra Pradesh were divided between 17 seats for Telangana and 25 for the Andhra Pradesh. K Chandrasekhar Rao-led TRS, (Telangana Rashtra Samiti) as expected, won 11 out of the 17 seats, capturing 34.9 percent of the vote share. The remaining parties YSR Congress, BJP, TDP and AIMIM got one seat each, whereas the Congress managed to win only one seat of Nalgonda. The TRS was equally successful in the assembly elections and grabbed 63 seats, leading to government formation on 2 June 2014. K Chandrasekhar Rao is the first and ruling CM of Telangana.

Tripura

Party Vote share % Seats Won
CPM 64.8 2
INC 15.4 0
AITC 9.7 0
BJP 5.8 0
IPFT 1.1 0
Others 3.2 0

The CPM maintained its hold on the state of Tripura and won both the Lok Sabha seats in 2014. Both of its candidates Jitendra Choudhury and Sankar Prasad Datta won by an immense margin. With impressive voter turnout of 84.7 percent, Jitendra Choudhury, the state Forest and Rural Development Minister defeated his nearest rival Congress candidate Sachitra Debbarma by a massive margin of 484385 votes. In similar lines, Sankar Prasad Datta, the party trade union leader, defeated Congress candidate Arunoday Saha by a record margin of 503486 votes. The CPM grabbed 64.8 percent of the total vote share.

Uttar Pradesh

No. of seats 80
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 42.6 71
INC 7.5 2
BSP 19.8 0
SP 22.3 5
AAP 1 0
AD 1 2
Others 5.8 0

Uttar Pradesh is considered the most important state in India, politically, and rightly so as it holds 80 seats in the Lok Sabha, the highest number. They say, the route to Delhi goes through UP. With national parties as well as strong regional parties fighting bitterly for each seat, the 2014 election results in UP was the most watched event. The BJP formed an alliance with Apna Dal for two seats, the Congress grouped with Mahan Dal, BSP fought independently and so did SP and AAP. Narendra Modi did an aggressive campaigning from BJP, Rahul Gandhi from Congress, Arvind Kejriwal and Kumar Vishwas from AAP, Akhilesh Yadav and Mulayam Singh Yadav of state ruling party SP, etc. Though it was common knowledge that the Modi-wave impacted the entire nation and specifically the Hindi heartland, the results were beyond anybody’s expectations. Even opinion polls and exit polls didn’t predict anywhere close to the actual verdict. There was a significant improvement in the voter turnout, 58.4 percent compared to 47.5 percent in 2009. The BJP received a massive victory winning 71 seats on its own and two seats through its ally Apna Dal, taking its tally to a huge 73. The Congress reduced to shambles with almost all its sitting MPs losing their seats except Sonia Gandhi from Rae Bareli and Rahul Gandhi from Amethi. So was the fate of SP, which went down to 5 from 23. The biggest shock was for BSP which failed to win even one seat and went down from 20 to 0. In fact, it didn’t win a single seat in the Lok Sabha election despite fielding 403 candidates across the nation. The AAP failed to secure anything and got a vote share of 1 percent.

Uttarakhand

No. of seats 5
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 55.9 5
INC 34.4 0
BSP 4.8 0
SP 0.4 0
AAP 1.6 0
Others 2.9 0

The Modi-wave continued to pay richly for the BJP as it swept all the five seats in Uttarakhand which were all held by Congress in 2009. The BJP fielded its three ex-CMs Bhuwan Khanduri, Ramesh Pokhriyal and Bhagat Singh Koshiyari. Winning 55.9 percent of the vote share, all the five candidates won by a comfortable margin of more than one lakh votes. Only Ajay Tamta from Almora defeated Pradeep Tamta of the Congress by 95690 votes.

West Bengal

No. of seats 42
Party Vote share % Seats Won
BJP 17 2
INC 9.7 4
AITC 39.8 34
CPM 23 2
RSP 2.5 0
Others 8 0

When the country was embroiled in the chants of Modi-Modi, there were still a few states where its wave overflew almost silently. Apart from Tamil Nadu and Orissa, West Bengal was the only state which didn’t see any impact of Modi. With a meaty share of 42 seats in Lok Sabha, West Bengal is the third largest state in terms of the number of seats. Mamata Banerjee-led All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) contested on all the 42 seats and mended its 2009 performance of 19 seats to a significant 34 seats in 2014, making it the fourth largest individual party in the Lok Sabha after BJP (282), Congress (44) and AIADMK (37). The BJP failed to win any seat in 2009 and got two seats of Asansol and Darjeeling. The already weakening CPM went down from nine to two seats, and the Congress went down from six to four.

Result by Alliance

National Democratic Alliance (NDA)

National Democratic Alliance
Bharatiya Janata Party 282
Telugu Desam 16
Shiromani Akali Dal 4
Shivsena 18
Apna Dal 2
Rashtriya Lok Samta Party 3
Swabhimani Paksha 1
Lok Jan Shakti Party 6
Naga Peoples Front 1
National Peoples Party 1
Pattali Makkal Katchi 1
All India N.R. Congress 1
Total 336

United Progressive Alliance (UPA)

United Progressive Alliance
Indian National Congress 44
Nationalist Congress Party 6
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 2
Kerala Congress (M) 1
Rashtriya Janata Dal 4
Indian Union Muslim League 2
Total 59

Left Front

Left Front
CPI 1
CPI(M) 9
RSP 1
Total 11

Other Parties

Others
AAP 4
AIADMK 37
AITC 34
AIUDF 3
BJD 20
INLD 2
JKPDP 3
JD(S) 2
JD(U) 2
SP 5
SDF 1
TRS 11
AIMIM 1
YRS Congress 9
Independent 3
Total 136

Assembly Segment-wise lead analysis

State/UT Parliament Seats NDA UPA Others Assembly Segments NDA UPA Others
Andaman & Nicobar Islands (UT) 1 BJP 1 --- --- 1 BJP 1 --- ---
Andhra Pradesh 25 BJP 2 TDP 15 0 YSRCP 8 175 BJP 4 TDP 102 0 YSRCP 67 NDP 1 IND 1
Arunachal Pradesh 2 BJP 1 INC 1 --- 60 BJP 35 INC 22 PPA 3
Assam 14 BJP 7 INC 3 AIUDF 3, IND 1 126 BJP 69 INC 23 AIUDF 24, IND 9, BOPF 1
Bihar 40 BJP 22 LJP 6 RLSP 3 INC 2, RJD 4, NCP 1 JDU 2 243 BJP 121, LJP 34, RLSP 17 INC 14, RJD 32, NCP 5 JDU 18, CPI 1, BSP 1
Chandigarh (UT) 1 BJP 1 --- --- 1 BJP 1 --- ---
Chhattisgarh 11 BJP 10 INC 1 --- 90 BJP 72 INC 18 ---
Dadra Nagar & Haveli (UT) 1 BJP 1 --- --- 1 BJP 1 --- ---
Daman & Diu (UT) 1 BJP 1 --- --- 1 BJP 1 --- ---
Goa 2 BJP 2 --- --- 40 BJP 33 INC 7 ---
Gujarat 26 BJP 26 --- --- 182 BJP 165 INC 17 ---
Haryana 10 BJP 7 INC 1 INLD 2 90 BJP 52, HJC 7 INC 15 INLD 16
Himachal Pradesh 4 BJP 4 --- --- 68 BJP 59 INC 9 ---
Jammu & Kashmir 6 BJP 3 --- JKPDP 3 87 BJP 25 INC 12, JKNC 5 JKPDP 41, JPC 1 IND 3
Jharkhand 14 BJP 12 JMM 2 --- 81 BJP 56 INC 3 JMM 9 JVM 4, CPI(ML)(L) 3, JBSP 3, JP 2, AJSUP 1
Karnataka 28 BJP 17 INC 9 JD(S) 2 224 BJP 132 INC 77 JDS 15
Kerala 20 --- INC 8, IUML 2, KC(M) 1, RSP 1 CPI(M) 5, CPM(IND) 2, CPI 1 140 BJP 4 INC 57, KC(M) 7, IUML 11, RSP 4, SJ(D) 1 CPI(M) 36, CPI 9, IND(CPM backed) 11
Lakshadeep (UT) 1 --- NCP 1 --- 1 --- NCP 1 ---
Madhya Pradesh 29 BJP 27 INC 2 --- 230 BJP 192 INC 36 BSP 2
Maharashtra 48 BJP 23, SS 18, SWP 1 INC 2, NCP 4 --- 288 BJP 132, SS 100, SWP 9, RSPS 3 INC 16, NCP 26 PWPI 2
Manipur 2 --- INC 2 --- 60 BJP 3, NPF 9 INC 38 CPI 9, AITC 1
Meghalaya 2 NPP 1 INC 1 --- 60 BJP 5 NPP 18 INC 23 IND 9, UDP 5
Mizoram 1 --- INC 1 --- 40 --- INC 21 IND 19
Nagaland 1 NPF 1 --- --- 60 NPF 52 INC 8 ---
NCT of Delhi (UT) 7 BJP 7 --- --- 70 BJP 60 --- AAP 10
Odisha 21 BJP 1 --- BJD 20 147 BJP 20 INC 11 BJD 116
Puducherry (UT) 1 AINRC 1 --- --- 30 AINRC 19 INC 5 ADMK 5, DMK 1
Punjab 13 BJP 2, SAD 4 INC 3 AAP 4 117 BJP 16, SAD 29 INC 37 AAP 33, IND 2
Rajasthan 25 BJP 25 --- --- 200 BJP 180 INC 11 NPEP 4, IND 5
Sikkim 1 --- --- SDF 1 32 -- INC 1 SDF 22, SKM 9
Tamil Nadu 39 BJP 1, PMK 1 --- ADMK 37 234 BJP 7, PMK 4 INC 1 ADMK 217, DMK 4, VCK 1
Telangana 17 BJP 1, TDP 1 INC 2 YSRCP 1, TRS 11, AIMIM 1 119 BJP 5, TDP 15 INC 18 TRS 67, AIMIM 7, YSRCP 7
Tripura 2 --- --- CPI(M) 2 60 --- --- CPI(M) 60
Uttar Pradesh 80 BJP 71, AD 2 INC 2 SP 5 403 BJP 328, AD 9 INC 15 SP 42, BSP 9
Uttarakhand 5 BJP 5 --- --- 70 BJP 63 INC 7 ---
West Bengal 42 BJP 2 INC 4 AITC 34, CPI(M) 2 294 BJP 24 INC 28 AITC 214, CPI(M) 22, CPI 2, RSP 3, AIFB 1

(Data sourced from www.indiavotes.com)

Analysis Table:

State/UT No. Assembly NDA UPA Others State Lead
Andaman & Nicobar Islands (UT) 1 1 --- --- NDA
Chandigarh (UT) 1 1 --- --- NDA
Dadra Nagar & Haveli (UT) 1 1 --- --- NDA
Daman & Diu (UT) 1 1 --- --- NDA
Lakshwadeep (UT) 1 --- 1 --- UPA
Puducherry (UT) 30 19 5 6 NDA
Sikkim 32 -- 1 31 Others (SDF 22)
Goa 40 33 7 --- NDA
Mizoram 40 --- 21 19 UPA
Arunachal Pradesh 60 35 23 3 NDA
Manipur 60 12 38 10 UPA
Meghalaya 60 23 23 14 NDA & UPA
Nagaland 60 52 8 --- NDA
Tripura 60 --- --- 60 Others (CPI(M) 60)
Himachal Pradesh 68 59 9 --- NDA
Uttarakhand 70 63 7 --- NDA
NCT of Delhi (UT) 70 60 --- 10 NDA
Jharkhand 81 56 12 13 NDA
Jammu & Kashmir 87 25 17 45 Others (JKPDP 41)
Chhattisgarh 90 72 18 --- NDA
Haryana 90 59 15 16 NDA
Punjab 117 45 37 35 NDA
Telangana 119 20 18 81 Others (TRS 67)
Assam 126 69 23 34 NDA
Kerala 140 4 80 56 UPA
Odisha 147 20 11 116 Others (BJD 116)
Andhra Pradesh 175 108 0 67 NDA
Gujarat 182 165 17 --- NDA
Rajasthan 200 180 11 9 NDA
Karnataka 224 132 77 15 NDA
Madhya Pradesh 230 192 36 2 NDA
Tamil Nadu 234 11 1 222 Others (AIADMK 217)
Bihar 243 172 51 20 NDA
Maharashtra 288 244 42 2 NDA
West Bengal 294 24 28 242 Others (AITC 214)
Uttar Pradesh 403 337 15 51 NDA

Effect of the Election on the Market and the Media

Economy

The BJP-led NDA’s landslide win resulted in a record high for the Sensex. It surged 1470 points to 25375.63 points when the news was first broadcasted. It closed on an all-time high at 24121.74 points. Market capitalisation rose by a whopping 1 lakh crore to end at 80.64 lakh crore rupees. Nifty closed at a record high of 7200 points, 75 points higher than its opening on the day of results. The Deutsche Bank raised its December 2014 BSE Sensex target to 28000 and Macquarie raised its 12-month target for the Nifty to 8400 from 7200. The Rupee rose 2.1 percent a week, its biggest weekly rise since September 2013.

Media

Domestic as well as the international media were closely watching the 2014 elections. UK’s Daily Mail on 16 May 2014 ran an article, “A nation holds its breath: Delhi moves from campaign frenzy to eerie calm, as confident BJP anticipates a landslide victory.” Varghese K George, the political editor of The Hindu said, “All you can say at the moment is that the BJP is doing well [and] Modi is managing to make some connection with voters and the Congress is doing pretty badly, though they have pulled back some ground in some places in the last month.”

Reactions

Every politician—from Narendra Modi to Rahul Gandhi—expressed their thoughts on the 16th Lok Sabha election results.

Indian National Congress (INC)

The Congress party conceded defeat with party president Sonia Gandhi saying, “We accept the verdict of the people. We hope that that the party that will form the government will work with all communities of the country...the Congress will always fight on the basis of its ideals and beliefs and will never compromise on them. I would like to thank all the party workers for their work. I accept the loss.” Party Secretary and Vice President, Rahul Gandhi said, “We have done pretty badly. As vice president of the party, I take full responsibility for the party's loss.” Though most of the leaders tried to distance Rahul Gandhi from the failure, few of the senior leaders were critical of Rahul Gandhi’s campaign. Rajeev Shukla said, “Mr Modi had sold a dream to India...to which it has subscribed. He claimed Mr. Modi had promised voters "Jupiter and Saturn.” The Indian Express quoted Shashi Tharoor saying, “The time for introspection is now past. Time for action has come…it is time to move and it is time to make some visible changes that the world and the country can see because, for a couple of years after 2014, the process for consideration, reflection, introspection and so on has been taking place. It is now time for the leadership to draw on the conclusion from their introspection and take necessary action.”

Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP)

The BJP PM Candidate Narendra Modi tweeted, “India has won! Achhe din aane wale hain (Good days are coming.)” His tweet “India has won! Bharat ki Vijay! Acche din aane wale hai!” became the most retweeted Twitter post. Modi’s close aide and BJP’s election campaign architect, Amit Shah said, “This is for the first time since 1984 that a party has gotten a clear victory. This is a victory for the country and its people. The only two seats that the Congress won was by the family. The same was in the case of Samajwadi Party, where they won five seats.” Veteran leader L K Advani claimed, “The mood today is against corruption and dynasty rule in the country. Every candidate, the party should introspect about their performance. This kind of an election has never ever happened in the history of this country.” Party president and UP party chief, Rajnath Singh stated Modi-wave as the reason for the overwhelming results. He said, “We got this spectacular victory on the basis of Narendra Modi's dynamic leadership. This is a people's mandate for a change. I believe that this mandate is also for Modi. Let us maintain dignity, calm during celebrations. Don't say anything against any community.”

Other Parties

After AITC’s huge performance in West Bengal, Chief Minister and AITC head Mamata Banerjee said, “I thank the people of Bengal. So far, we have 34 seats. Trinamool Congress will play a greater constructive role in the country.”

J Jayalalitha of AIADMK, which swept 37 out of the 39 Tamil Nadu Lok Sabha seats, said, “Thank the people of Tamil Nadu for making the AIADMK the third largest party in Parliament. We will try to fulfil all the promises we have made in the election manifesto.”

The first-timer Aam Aadmi Party chief, Arvind Kejriwal congratulated Modi saying, “I congratulate Modi for winning from here (Varanasi). Thank all those who voted for me and also those who didn't. This is the country's verdict.” Commenting on his party’s dismal performance in general elections and especially in Delhi, he said “I am surprised to see AAP doing well in Punjab, but am disappointed with Delhi.”

J&K CM and National Conference leader Omar Abdullah on losing his seat said, “I'm still coming to terms with the results. There are lessons to be learnt. This is not the end of NC.”

Rashtriya Lok Dal leader Amar Singh congratulated Modi saying, “Offer BJP my congratulations. Like I said before I see a glimpse of Vajpayee, Advani & Mahajan in Modi.”

Rashtriya Janata Dal’s Lalu Prasad Yadav refused to congratulate Modi saying, “I won’t congratulate Modi. I am not an opportunist”

National celebrities

Superstar Rajnikanth congratulated Modi tweeting, “Hearty Congratulations dear Modiji on your historic win. Best Wishes.”

Veteran singer Asha Bhosle tweeted, “Congratulations to the BJP and sincere best wishes to Shri Narendra Modiji our next Prime Minister. Jai Hind”

Actor Shah Rukh Khan tweeted, “What a solid mandate given by the ppl. It proves again that the only constant is change. Now to move forward with strong & active faith, India.”

International celebrities

Bangladesh Premier Sheikh Hasina congratulated Modi by sending a letter saying, “I am delighted to see a great friend of Bangladesh leading an extremely friendly country, India, in the coming days. I hope that you would find my country your second home and first destination for your official visit abroad”.

UK PM David Cameron tweeted, “Congratulations @narendramodi on victory in India's elections. Keen to work together to get the most from UK-India relationship”

Pakistan PM Nawaz Sharif telephoned Modi to congratulate him and convey his best wishes.

Afghanistan’s President Hamid Karzai conveyed his wishes via Twitter, “President #Karzai extends his warm congratulations to @narendramodi on victory in elections. Afghans always regard #India as a true friend," via Aimal Faizi, spokesperson to the president.

Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa also congratulated Modi and issued an invitation to visit Sri Lanka, said the spokesperson Mohan Samaranayake.

Australia PM Tony Abbott tweeted, “I've spoken to @narendramodi and congratulated him on his success. I look forward to strengthening ties between India and Australia”

US President Barack Obama called up to congratulate Narendra Modi and invited him to visit Washington at a mutually agreeable time to further strengthen our bilateral relationship.

Showing admiration to the Indian democracy, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu called up to congratulate Modi on his success in polls. They agreed to deepen the cooperation between the two countries.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson said, “This year is a year of China-India friendly exchanges and bilateral relations are faced with new development opportunities.”

Canada PM Stephen Harper tweeted, “Congratulations Narendra Modi on your election win in India”

Apart from these leaders, countries like Maldives, Japan, France, Spain, Germany, etc. also conveyed their wishes to Modi.

In turn, Modi also responded to each tweet from the world leaders thanking them for their good wishes and support. It was noted in the media that Barack Obama was the last person to receive the message from Modi. The US State Department Spokesperson Jen Psaki at her daily news conference said, "I think our relationship between the United States and India is so strong and enduring we won`t worry about the Twitter rank order."

While responding to a question on whether the US is bothered that President Barack Obama was so far down on the list of Modi’s priorities, she further said, “Obviously, we have a long, enduring partnership with India. That will continue, and hopefully only grow in the future."

International media

The 2014 general elections were a very closely watched event globally. All international newspapers ran headlines on Modi’s win.

The Guardian in an article wrote about the “the sheer aggression of the BJP campaign, the threats to the Election Commission – Modi made sure India felt his presence”. It further said, "The BJP's economic programme for India has thus far been short of specifics. But if the experience of Modi's rule in Gujarat is anything to go by, it will involve crony capitalism that promotes and incentivises big business through all sorts of explicit and implicit subsidies, keeping wages low and suppressing any workers' action, repression of popular movements and cracking down on dissent. The human costs of this kind of growth are enormous, as are the human costs of achieving communal 'peace' through fear."

The New York Times’s Ellen Barry wrote, “Mr Modi seemed to benefit from changes in the electorate. Nearly 100 million new voters were registered ahead of this vote, including a vast influx of young people, and turnout broke all previous records, hitting 66.4 percent," said the article. "Compared with their elders, these young voters were unmoved by the decade-old history of the Gujarat riots, which had prompted many Western governments, including the United States, to impose visa bans on Mr Modi. They also proved far less emotionally bound to the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty, which has served as the backbone of the Congress party since India won its independence, surviving the wrenching assassinations of two of its members.”

The Washington Post in an article said, “On the stump, Modi promised a new India, with an efficient government free of corruption. He pledged to build bullet trains, hydroelectric power plants, manufacturing hubs and dozens of cities, enabling India to rival China, the economic powerhouse next door. A lover of technology, Modi even addressed several rallies as a holographic image. But critics and supporters alike say the state leader dubbed ‘Development Man’ may face challenges implementing his agenda nationwide.”

The BBC in an article wrote, “Some argue, Narendra Modi was able to able to attract votes cutting across caste, class and gender lines, leading to what is turning out to be a sensational win for his BJP. The party had also succeeded in picking up both urban and rural votes at a time when parties like the outgoing Congress maintained that the key to power in Delhi mainly depended on the rural vote. The BJP spokesperson Nirmala Sitharaman says she would like to believe that the results had "destroyed established paradigms of Indian politics" and changed the way we look at Indian politics.

Individuals and Organizations

The 14th Dalai Lama also conveyed his best wishes to Narendra Modi. In a letter, his Holiness stated that India was the world’s largest democratic nation and the most stable in South Asia with a deep tradition of Ahimsa. He said that he took pride in citing India as a living example of unity in diversity, an ancient country in which all the major world’s religious traditions flourish and from which other countries could learn from.

The American Jewish Committee congratulated Modi saying, “We look forward to working with Mr. Modi and the new government to further strengthen and deepen India's extensive relations with the United States and Israel," said Shira Loewenberg, Director of AJC's Asia Pacific Institute (API). She added, "BJP has long been a friend to Israel and the Jewish people.”

Formation of the Government

Manmohan Singh tendered his resignation on 17 May 2014. Narendra Modi’s swearing-in ceremony happened on 26 May 2014. His team was the smallest of all time with 23 cabinet ministers, 10 independent ministers and 11 Ministers of State. Prominent BJP leaders and leaders from the alliance parties were made part of the cabinet. Important portfolios like Home, External Affairs, Defence, Law and Order, HRD, Finance, Parliamentary Affairs, Railways and Defence, etc. were kept with BJP. Detailed list of the 44 ministers is as follows:

Type Name Party Portfolio Tenure
Cabinet Rajnath Singh BJP Home Affairs 2014 - till date
Nitin Gadkari BJP Road Transport, Highways and Shipping 2014 - till date
Sushma Swaraj BJP External Affiairs 2014 - till date
Venkaiah Naidu BJP Urban Development, Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation 2014 – 2017
Sadanand Gowda BJP Railways 2014 – 2015
Uma Bharti BJP Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation 2014 - till date
Najma Heptullah BJP Minority Affairs 2014 – 2016
Gopinath Munde BJP Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, Drinking Water and Sanitation 2014 – 2014
Ramvilas Paswan LJP Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution 2014 - till date
Kalraj Mishra BJP MSME 2014 - till date
Maneka Gandhi BJP Women and Child Development 2014 - till date
Ananth Kumar BJP Chemicals and Fertilisers 2014 – 2016
Ravi Shankar Prasad BJP Law and Justice Ministry 2014 - till date
Ashok Gajapathi Raju TDP Civil Aviation 2014 - till date
Anant Geete Shiv Sena Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises 2014 - till date
Harsimrat Kaur Badal SAD Food Processing 2014 - till date
Narendra Singh Tomar BJP Mines, Steel, Labour and Employment 2014 – 2014
Jual Oram BJP Tribal Affairs 2014 - till date
Radha Mohan Singh BJP Agriculture 2014 - till date
Thawar Chand Gehlot BJP Social Justice and Empowerment 2014 - till date
Smriti Irani BJP HRD 2014 – 2016
Dr. Harsh Vardhan BJP Science, technology and Earth Sciences 2014 - till date
Minister of State Gen VK Singh BJP External Affairs and Overseas Indian Affairs 2014 - till date
Rao Inderjeet Singh BJP Planning, Statistics and Programme Implementation and Defence 2014 – 2016
Santosh Kumar Gangwar BJP Textiles, Parliamentary Affairs, Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation 2014 – 2016
Sripad Naik BJP Culture and Tourism 2014 – 2014
Dharmendra Pradhan BJP Petroleum and Natural Gas 2014 - till date
Sarbananda Sonowal BJP Youth Affairs and Sports Minister 2014 – 2014
Prakash Javadekar BJP Environment, Forest and Climate Change 2014 – 2016
Piyush Goyal BJP Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy 2014 - till date
Dr. Jitendra Singh BJP Development of North Eastern Region (Independent Charge), Prime Minister's Office, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Space 2014 - till date
Nirmala Sitharaman BJP Commerce and Industry 2014 - till date
GM Siddeshwara BJP Civil Aviation 2014 – 2014
Manoj Sinha BJP Communications and Railways 2014 - till date
Upendra Kushwaha RLSP Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, Drinking Water and Sanitation 2014 – 2014
Pon Radhakrishnan BJP Road Transport, Highways and Shipping 2014 - till date
Kiren Rijiju BJP Home Affairs 2014 - till date
Krishan Pal Gujjar BJP Road Transport, Highways and Shipping 2014 – 2014
Sanjiv Baliyan BJP Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation 2014 - till date
Mansukhbhai Dhanjibhai Vasava BJP Tribal Affairs 2014 -2016
Raosaheb Dadarao Patil Danve BJP Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution 2014 – 2015
Vishnudev Sahai BJP Mines and Steel 2014 - till date
Sudarshan Bhagat BJP Agriculture Cooperation and Farmers Affairs 2014 - till date
Nihalchand Chauhan BJP Chemicals and Fertilisers 2014 - till date

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